Chapter 7:

The Jeffersonian Era


1)The Rise of Cultural Nationalism

a)Patterns of Education

i)Republican vision included enlightened citizenry, wanted nationwide system of free public schools to create educated electorate required by republic

ii)By 1815 no state had a comprehensive public school system, schooling primary by private institutions open only to those who could pay. Most were aristocratic in outlook, trained students to become elite. Few schools for poor

iii)Idea of “republican mother” to train new generation could not be ignorant, late 18th century women began to have limited education to make them better wives and mothers- no professional training

iv)Attempts to educate “noble savages” in white culture and reform tribes, African Americans very little schooling- literacy rate very small

v)Higher education not public, private contribution + tuition necessary, students mostly from prosperous, propertied families. Little professional education

b)Medicine and Science

i)Most doctors learned from established practitioners, struggled w/ introduction of science and combating superstition. Doctors often used dangerous and useless treatments.

ii)Medical profession used its new “scientific” method to justify expanding control to new care- childbirths by doctor and not midwives

c)Cultural Aspirations in the New Nation

i)After Eur independence ppl wanted cultural independence, literary and artistic achievements to rival those of Europe

ii)Nationalism could be found in early American schoolbooks, Noah Webster wanted patriot education- American Spelling Book and American Dictionary of the English Language established national standard of words and usage, simplified and Americanized system of spelling created

iii)High literacy rate and large reading public due to wide circulation of newspapers and political pamphlets. Most printers used cheaper English material, American writers struggled to create strong native literature

(1)Charles Brockden Brown used novels to voice American themes

(2)Washington Irving wrote American fold tales, fables- Rip Van Winkle

(3)Histories that glorified past- Mercy Otis Warren History of the Revolution 1805 emphasized heroism, Mason Weems Life of Washington 1806. History used to instill sense of nationalism

d)Religious Skepticism

i)Revolution detached churches from govt + elevated liberty and reason, by 1790s few members of formal churches, some embraced “deism”

ii)Books and articles attacking religious “superstitions” popular, Thomas Paine’s The Age of Reason.

iii)Skepticism led to “universalism” + “unitarianism”, @ first within New England Congregational Church, later separate- rejected predestination, salvation for all, Jesus only great religious teacher not son of God

iv)Spread of rationalism led to less commitment to organized churches + denominations considered too formal and traditional, comeback starting 1801

e)The Second Great Awakening

i)Origin 1790s from efforts to fight spread of religious rationalism. Baptists, Presbyterian, Methodists (founded by John Wesley) successful at combating New Light dissenters (ppl who made religion more compatible w/ rationalism)

ii)By 1800 awakening that began at Yale had spread throughout country and to the west, “camp meetings” by evangelical ministers produced religious frenzy

iii)Second Great Awakening called individuals to readmit God + Christ into daily life, reject skeptical rationalism. New sects rejected predestination, combined piety w/ belief of God as active force whose grace achieved thru faith + works

iv)Accelerated growth of new sects as opposed to return to established churches, provided sense of order + social stability to ppl searching for identity

v)Women particularly drawn to revivalism b/c women more numerous in certain regions, movement of industrial work out of home led to personal and social strains that religion was used to compensate for

vi)Revival led to rise of black preachers who interpreted religious message of salvation available to all into right to freedom

vii) Native American dislocation and defeats after Revolution created sense of crisis and led to Indian religious fervor- missionaries active in south led to conversion, in North prophet Handsome Lake  encouraged Christian missionaries and restoration of traditional Iroquois culture

2)Stirrings of Industrialism

a)Technology in America

i)America imported technological advances from England. Brit govt attempted to prevent spread of their tech, but immigrants introduced new machines to America. Samuel Slater built mill in RI 1790, first factory in America

ii)American inventor Oliver Evans created automated flower mill, Eli Whitney revolutionized weapons making and

iii)Invented cotton gin in 1793. Growth of textile industry in England created great demand for cotton, cotton gin allowed for easy separation of cotton seed from cotton allowed tremendous amount of cotton to be cleaned, new business led slavery became more important than ever.

iv)In North cotton supply led NE entrepreneurs to create American textile industry in 1820s/30s- as N became increasingly industrial S more firmly wedded to agriculture

v)His interchangeable parts for weapons invented during Quasi War w/ France adopted by other manufactures for other complicated products

b)Transportation Innovations

i)Industrialization required transporting raw materials to factories and finished goods to create large domestic market for mass-production, US lacked system

ii)To enlarge American market US merchants looked to expand overseas trade, Congress 1789 passed tariff bills that favored American ships in American ports, stimulated growth of domestic shipping. War in Eur in 1790s led US merchants to take over most of trade btwn Eur and Western hemisphere

iii)Improvement in inter-state and interior transport led by improved river transport by new steamship

iv)Oliver Evans had invented efficient steam engine for boats and machinery, Robert Fulton + Robert Livingston perfected steamboat and brought it to national attention w/ their Clermont

c)The Rising Cities

i)America remained largely rural and agrarian nation, only 3% lived in towns of more than 8,000 in 1800 census—yet there were signs of change

ii)Major US cities such as New York + Philadelphia large and complex enough to rival secondary cities of Europe

iii)Urban lifestyle produced affluent people who sought amenities, elegance, dress, and diversions- music, theater, dancing, horse racing

3)Jefferson the President

a)The Federal City and the “People’s President”

i)French architect Pierre L’Enfant designed city on grand scale, but Washington remained little more than provincial village w/ few public buildings

ii)Jefferson acted in spirit of democratic simplicity, made his image plain, disdain for pretension. Eliminated aura of majesty surrounding presidency

iii)Political genius, worked as leader of his party to give Republicans in Congress direction, used appointments as political weapon. Won 1804 reelection easily

b)Dollars and Ships

i)Washington and Adams had increased expenditures, debt, taxation. Jefferson 1802 had Congress abolish all internal taxes leaving only land sales and customs duties, cut govt spending, halved debt

ii) Scaled down armed forces, cut navy due to fear of limiting civil liberty + civilian govt, promoting overseas commerce instead of agriculture

iii)At same time established US Military Academy @ West Point 1802, built up navy after 1801 threats by pasha of Tripoli in Mediterranean following Jefferson’s end to paying ransom demanded by Barbary pirates

c)Conflict With The Courts

i)Judiciary remained in hands of Federalist judges, congress repealed Judiciary Act of 1801 eliminating judgeships Adam’s filled before leaving office

ii)Case of Marbury v. Madison 1803 btwn Justice of Peace William Marbury and Sec of State James Madison

(1)Supreme Court ruled Congress exceeded its authority in creating a statute of the Judiciary Act of 1789 b/c Constitution had already defined judiciary

(2)Court asserted that the act of Congress was void. Enlarged courts power

iii)Chief Justice John Marshall presided over case, battled to give fed govt unity and strength, established judiciary as branch coequal w/ exec and legislature

iv)Jefferson assaulted last Federalist stronghold, urged Congress to impeach obstructive judges. Tried to impeach justice Samuel Chase in 1805 but Republican Senate could not get 2/3 vote necessary- acquittal set precedent impeachment not purely a political weapon, above partisan disagreement

4)Doubling the National Domain

a)Jefferson and Napoleon

i)After failing to seize India Napoleon wanted power in New World. Spain held areas west of Mississippi, 1800 Treaty of San Ildefonso granted French this Louisiana. Also held sugar-rich West Indian islands Guadeloupe, Martinique, Santo Domingo (where slave revolt led by Toussaint L’ouverture put down)

ii)Jefferson unaware of Napoleon’s imperial agenda, pursued pro-French foreign policy- apptd pro-French Robert Livingston minister, secured Franco-American settlement of 1800, disapproved of black Santo Domingo uprising

iii)Reconsidered position when heard of secret transfer of Louisiana and seizure of New Orleans, alarmed n 1802 when Spanish intendant at New Orleans forbade transfer of American cargo to ocean going vessels (which was guaranteed in Pikcney Treaty of 1795)- this closed lower Miss. to US shippers

iv)Westerners demanded govt reopen river, Jefferson ordered Livingston negotiate purchase of New Orleans, in meantime expanded military and river fleet to give impression of New Orleans attack

v)Nap offered sale of whole Louisiana Territory. Plans for American empire awry b/c army decimated by yellow fever, reinforcements frozen

b)The Louisiana Purchase

i)Livingston and James Monroe in Paris decided to proceed with sale of whole territory even though not authorized to do so by govt, treaty signed April 1803

ii)US paid $15 million to France, had to incorporate N.O. residents into Union

iii)Jefferson unsure US had authority to accept offer b/c power not specifically granted in Constitution, ultimately agreed constituted as treaty power. December 1803 territory handed over from Spain to France then US

iv)Govt organized Louisiana territory like Northwest territory w/ various territories to eventually to become states- Louisiana first, admitted 1812

c)Lewis and Clark Explore the West

i)Jefferson planned expedition across continent to Pacific Ocean in 1803 to gather geographical fats and investigate trade w/ Indians

ii)Lewis and Clark set out 1804 from Mississippi R. in St Louis w/ Indian Sacajawea as guide, reached pacific fall 1805

iii)Jefferson dispatched other explorers to other parts of Louisiana Territory, Lieutenant Zebulon Pike led two expeditions btwn Mississppi and Rocky Mts

d)The Burr Conspiracy

i)Reelection of 1804 suggested nation approved of Jefferson’s acquisitions, but some NE Federalists known as Essex Junto felt expansion weakened power of Federalists + region . Felt only answer secession and “Northern Confederacy”

ii)Plan required support of NY, NJ, New England, but leading NY Federalist Alexander Hamilton refused support

iii)Turned to Vice President Aaron Burr (who had no prospect in own party after 1800 election deadlock) to be Federalist candidate for NY governor in 1804

iv)Hamilton accused Burr of treason and negative remarks about character, when Burr lost election blamed defeat on Hamilton’s malevolence

v)Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel 1804, Hamilton mortally wounded

vi)Burr, now political outcast, fled NY for West and along with General James Wilkinson, governor of Louisiana Territory, planned capture of Mexico from Spanish and possibly make his own empire. 1806 tried for treason, acquitted

vii)“Conspiracy” showed perils of central govt that remained deliberately weak w/ vast tracts of nominally controlled land, state of US as stable and united nation

5)Expansion and War

a)Conflict on the Seas

i)US shipping expanded to control trade btwn Eur and W. Indies

ii)Napoleon’s Continental system forbade ships that had docked at any point in British ports from landing on continent- Berlin (1806) + Milan (1807) Decrees

iii) Britain’s “orders in council” required goods to continent be in ships that had at least stopped in British ports- response to Nap’s “Continental System”

iv)American ships caught btwn countries, but England greater threat b/c greater sea power and the worse offender


i)Brit Navy had terrible conditions, forced service called “impressments” used, many deserted when possible and joined Americans- to stop loss Brit claimed right to stop and search American merchant ships + reimpress deserters

ii)1807 Chesapeake-Leopard incident: Brit fired on US ship that refused search, US Minister James Monroe protested, GB refused to renounce impressments

c)“Peaceable Coercion”

i)To prevent future incidents that might bring war Jefferson proposed The Embargo 1807- prohibited US ship from leaving for any foreign port

ii)Created national depression, ship-owners + merchants of NE (mainly Federalists) hardest hit-before

iii)James Madison, Jefferson’s Sec of State, won election of 1808 but fierce opposition- led Jefferson to end Embargo, replaced with Non-Intercourse Act- reopened trade w/ all nations except GB + France

iv)1810 new Macon’s Bill No. 2 opened trade w/ GB + France but pres had power to prohibit commerce for belligerent behavior against neutral shipping

v)Napoleon announced France would no longer interfere, Madison issued embargo against GB 1811 until it renounced restrictions of American shipping

d)The “Indian Problem” and the British

i)After dislodgement by Americans, Indians looked to Brits for protection

ii)William Henry Harrison had been a promoter of Western expansion (Harrison Land Law 1800), named governor of Indiana 1801 by Jefferson. Offered Indians ultimatum: become farmers and assimilate or move to West of Miss.

iii)By 1807 tribes mainly ceding land. After Chesapeake incident, however, Brits began to renew Indian friendships to begin defense of invasion into Can

e)Tecumseh and the Prophet

i)The Prophet was Indian leader inspired religious revival, rejection of white culture. Attracted thousands from many tribes at Tippecanoe Creek. Prophet’s brother Tecumseh led joint effort to oppose white civilization

ii)Starting 1809 began to unite tribes of Miss. valley, 1811 traveled south to add tribes of the South to alliance

iii)1811 Battle of Tippecanoe, Harrison defeated Prophet’s followers and destroyed tribal confederacy. However, thru 1812 continued to attack settlers, encouraged by Brit agents—Americans believed end only thru Can. Invasion

f)Florida and War Fever

i)“Frontiersman” in N wanted Canada, those in S wanted to acquire Spanish Florida in order to stop Indian attacks, gain access to rivers w/ port access

ii)1810 setters in W. Florida captured Spanish fort at Baton Rouge, President Madison agreed to annex territory- Spain Britain’s ally, made pretext for war

iii)By 1812 “war harks” elected during 1810 elections eager for war- some ardent nationalists seeking territorial expansion, others defense of Republican values

iv)Speaker Henry Clay of Kentucky and John Calhoun of SC led Republicans in pressing for Canadian invasion- Madison declared war June 18, 1812

6)The War of 1812

a)Battles with the Tribes

i)Americans forced to surrender Detroit and Fort Dearborn (Chicago) in first months. On seas American frigates and privateers successful, but by 1813 Brit navy (less occupied w/ Napoleon) devoted resources and imposed blockade

ii)US began to have success in Great Lakes- Oliver Perry beat Brits at Put-In-Bay 1813, burned capital at York. William Henry Harrison victorious at Battle of the Thames- disheartened Natives of Northwest and diminished ability to defend claims

iii)Andrew Jackson defeated Creek Indians @ Battle of Horseshoe Bend 1814, continued invasion into Florida and captured Pensacola Sept 1814

b)Battles With the British

i)After Nap surrendered 1814 England prepared to invade US, landed armada in Chesapeake region. Aug 1814 captured and burned Washington

ii)Americans at Fort McHenry in Baltimore repelled Brit attack in Sept. This battle is what Francis Scott Key witnessed, wrote “The Star-Spangled Banner”

iii)Brit also repelled in NY at Battle of Plattsburgh in Sept. January 1815 Andrew Jackson wildly successful at Battle of New Orleans- after treaty signed

c)The Revolt of New England

i)US failures 1812-1815 led to increased govt opposition. In NE opposition to war and Repub govt, Federalists led by Daniel Webtser led Congressional opposition. Federalists in NE dreamed of separate nation to escape tyranny of slaveholders and backwoodsmen

ii)Dec 1814 convention at Hartford led to nothing b/c of news of Jackson’s smashing success at New Orleans. Two days later news of peace treaty arrived

d)The Peace Settlement

i)Aug 1814 John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, Albert Gallatin met in Ghent, Belgium w/ Brit diplomats. Final treaty did little but end fighting- US dropped call to end impressments, Brit dropped call for Indian buffer in NW

ii)Brit accepted b/c exhausted + indebted after Napoleonic conflict, US believed w/ end of Eur conflict less commercial interference would occur

iii)Treaty of Gent signed Dec 1814, free trade agreement 1815later Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817 led to disarmament on Great Lakes

iv)War disastrous to Natives, lands captured in fighting never restored, most important allies now gone from NW